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COVID-19

Review

The impact of vitamin D supplementation on mortality rate and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Leila Nikniaz ORCID logo, Mohammad Amin Akbarzadeh ORCID logo, Hossein Hosseinifard ORCID logo, Mohammad-Salar Hosseini* ORCID logo
*Corresponding Author: Iranian Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) Centre, Joanna Briggs Institute Affiliated Group, Tabriz, Iran Email hosseini.msalar@gmail.com

Abstract

Background: Several studies have suggested the positive impact of vitamin D on patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. This systematic review aims to evaluate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on clinical outcomes and mortality rate of COVID-19 patients.
Methods: A comprehensive search was conducted through the databases of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, Embase, Ovid, and The Cochrane Library without time and language limitation, until December 16, 2020. The results were screened, and the outcomes of interest were extracted. Using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Critical Appraisal Tools, the remaining results were appraised critically. Statistical analysis was performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA) software version 2.0.
Results: Of the 2311 results, four studies and 259 patients were enrolled, including 139 patients in vitamin D intervention groups. The pooled analysis of three studies, reporting the patients’ survival and mortality rate, showed a significantly lower mortality rate among the intervention groups compared with the control groups (OR=0.264, 95% CI=0.099–0.708, p-value=0.008). Two of the studies reported the clinical outcomes based on the World Health Organization’s Ordinal Scale for Clinical Improvement (OSCI) score for COVID-19, where both of them showed a significant decrease in OSCI score in the vitamin D intervention groups. One study reported a lower rate of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and one study reported a significant decrease in serum levels of Fibrinogen.
Conclusion: Prescribing vitamin D supplementation to patients with COVID-19 infection seems to decrease the mortality rate, the severity of the disease, and serum levels of the inflammatory markers. Further studies are needed to determine the ideal type, dosage, and duration of supplementation.
Keywords: COVID-19, dietary supplements, SARS-CoV-2, treatment outcome, vitamin d
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Submitted: 26 Jan 2021
Revision: 09 Mar 2021
Accepted: 09 Mar 2021
ePublished: 09 Mar 2021
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