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  Abstract View: 105

Research Article

Neurodevelopmental Toxic Effects of Food Additives Used in Energy Drinks on Developing Rats

Revathi Boyina* ORCID logo, Sujatha Dodoala ORCID logo

Abstract

Background: Food additives are widely used in energy drinks and when taken above acceptable daily intake leads to various neurodevelopmental toxic effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the neurodevelopmental toxic effects in rat pups after pre and postnatal administration of selected food additives in pregnant animals.
Method: Pregnant rats aged 160-180 days were divided into six groups with 4 animals in each group. Group 1 treated with vehicle, group 2 treated with standard (caffeine 25 mg/kg p.o.), groups 3-6 were treated with glucuronolactone (5mg/kg p.o.), taurine (8 mg/kg p.o.), gluconolactone (84mg/kg p.o.), and combination of food additives respectively till postnatal day 15. After PND 21, pups were evaluated for neurobehavioural parameters using the behavioural alteration test, Morris water maze test, locomotor activity test, Y-maze test, Hot plate latency and neurobehavioural scoring. Neurotransmitters were estimated in brain tissue extract on PND 30, 45 and 60 and histopathological observations were examined in brain cortex region. Results were analysed using ANOVA.
Results:
Food additives treated groups showed an increase in behavioral activity, escape latency, immobility, percentage of alterations, hot plate latency and neurobehavioural scoring at selected dose and combination compared to control (p<0.001). The decrease in neurotransmitters levels in the brain and marked degeneration of neurons in the cortex was observed significantly in group 6 pups.
Conclusion:
The present results corroborate that food additives in combination induced neurodevelopmental toxic effects further mechanistic studies are suggested to understand the synergistic effect.

Keywords: energy drinks, food additives, glucuronolactone, neurodevelopmental toxic effects, rat pups, taurine
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Submitted: 06 Jul 2020
Revision: 30 Oct 2020
Accepted: 30 Oct 2020
ePublished: 30 Oct 2020
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