Pharm Sci. 2020;26(3): 323-331.
doi: 10.34172/PS.2020.14

Scopus ID: 85089780094
  Abstract View: 180
  PDF Download: 120

Research Article

Development of Salt Induced Liquid–Liquid Extraction Combined with Amine Based Deep Eutectic Solvent-Dispersive Liquid–Liquid Microextraction; An Efficient Analytical Method for Determination of Three Anti-Seizures in Urine Samples

Fatemeh Soltanmohammadi 1,2, Mohammadreza Afshar Moghadam 3, Maryam Khoubnasabjafari 4 ORCID logo, Abolghasem Jouyban 1,5* ORCID logo

1 Pharmaceutical Analysis Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
2 Student Research Committee, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
3 Food and Drug Safety Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
4 Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
5 Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.


Background: A simple, fast, efficient, and environmentally friendly microextraction technique named salt induced liquid-liquid extraction combined with amine based deep eutectic solvent-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector was applied for the determination of some anti-seizure drugs in urine samples.
Methods: In this method, sodium chloride (30% w/v) was dissolved in the sample solution (adjusted at pH=10) as phase separation agent and iso–propanol was added to the solution. After manually shaking, the solution was centrifuged and the supernatant phase was removed and mixed with choline chloride: benzyl ethylenediamine (85 µL) and the mixture was rapidly dispersed into a deionized water containing 5.0 % w/v, sodium chloride and adjusted at pH=10. The cloudy solution was centrifuged and the sedimented phase was removed and 1 µL of it was injected into the determination system.
Results: Under final conditions, the limits of detection and quantification at the ranges of 3.4-6.9, and 11.5-23.3 ng mL-1 were obtained, respectively. The relative standard deviations for intra- and inter day assays were lower than 10.9%. The effect of exogenous and endogenous effect on the performance of the method was studied and the results showed that these factors were nearly effect less on the efficiency.
Conclusion: The introduced method was satisfactorily utilized to determinate the selected benzodiazepines drugs in the patients’ urine samples.

Keywords: Benzodiazepines, Microextraction, Deep eutectic solvents, Gas chromatography, Urine
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Submitted: 21 Oct 2019
Accepted: 07 Dec 2019
ePublished: 20 Sep 2020
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