Pharm Sci. 2019;25(4): 358-363.
doi: 10.15171/PS.2019.47

Scopus ID: 85077620428
  Abstract View: 178
  PDF Download: 158

Short Communication

Phytochemicals and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activity from Piper caninum and Piper magnibaccum

Nur Athirah Hashim 1, Farediah Ahmad 1, Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi Wan Salleh 2 * ORCID logo, Shamsul Khamis 3

1 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia.
2 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI), 35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak, Malaysia.
3 School of Environmental and Natural Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.


Background: Piper species are aromatic plants used as spices in the kitchen, but their secondary metabolites have also shown biological effects on human health. In traditional medicine, Piper species have been used worldwide to treat several diseases such as urological problems, skin, liver and stomach ailments, for wound healing, and as antipyretic and anti-inflammatory agents. In the present study, we attempted to isolate the phytochemicals from Piper caninum and Piper magnibaccum and evaluate their tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Methods: Phytochemical constituents of the extracts were investigated using various chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. The structures of the isolated phytochemicals were established by analysis of their spectroscopic data, as compared to that of reported data. Tyrosinase inhibitory activity was also tested on the extracts and selected compounds using mushroom tyrosinase as the enzyme. Results: Fractionation and purification of the extracts of Piper caninum and Piper magni­baccum afforded nine known compounds which were cepharanone A (1), cepharadione A (2), aristolactam AII (3), 5,7-dimethoxyflavone (4), 24-methylenecycloartan-3-one (5), β-sitosterol (6), piperumbellactam A (7), 24S-ethylcholesta-5,22,25-trien-3β-ol (8) and stigmast-3,6-dione (9). Ethyl acetate extracts from leaves of P. magnibaccum gave the highest inhibition value at 48.35%, while the tested compounds displayed weak tyrosinase activity compared to the positive control, kojic acid. Conclusion: These phytochemical results suggested that the extracts could assist as a potential source of bioactive compounds. Further research is needed in which the extract could possibly be exploited for pharmaceutical use.
Keywords: Phytochemical, Piperaceae, Piper maingayi, Piper magnibaccum, Tyrosinase
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Submitted: 10 Apr 2019
Revision: 31 May 2019
Accepted: 13 Jun 2019
ePublished: 20 Dec 2019
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