Pharm Sci. 2019;25(2): 145-153.
doi: 10.15171/PS.2019.22

Scopus ID: 85069176150
  Abstract View: 396
  PDF Download: 241

Research Article

Liposomal Formulation of Snakehead Fish (Ophiocephalus striatus) Powder and Toxicity Study in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Model

Robert Tungadi 1 * ORCID logo, Widysusanti Abdulkadir 1, Netty Ino Ischak 2, Bayu R Rahim 1

1 Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Sport and Health, State University of Gorontalo, Indonesia.
2 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Sciences, State University of Gorontalo, Indonesia.


Background: Snakehead fish (Ophiocephalus striatus) is a freshwater fish that is utilized as anti-inflammatory and anticancer drug. The aim of this study was to determine the toxicity effect of snakehead fish powder (SFP), formulate it into liposome and in vitro study using sensitive and resistant breast cancer cells. Methods: Dried powder of snakehead fish was made using the atomizer then made a test solution which was divided into 7 treatment groups in different concentrations. They were exposed to zebrafish embryos then observed for 72 h post fertilization (hpf). After acquiring the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) and lethal concentration (LC50) of SFP, these concentrations were used to formulate SFP into liposome by extrusion method. SFP-liposomes were characterized and stable tested. Afterwards, SFP-liposomes were evaluated in vitro using sensitive and resistant breast cancer cells. Results: The maximum allowed toxicant concentration of SFP was 0.0543 mg/mL meaning slight toxic symptoms, IC50 = 0.0945 mg/mL showing the growth inhibition of zebrafish embryos, and LC50 = 0.1549 mg/mL meaning very toxic category that has killed zebrafish embryos. The characterization results showed that size of SFP-liposome were 121 nm ± 0.29, polydispersity index 0.06 ± 0.02, zeta-potential -10.15 mV ± 0.36 and % entrapment efficiency (EE) 85.75% ± 2.24. Six weeks of stability study showed that size profile was stable at 25°C and 37°C. Moreover, SFP-liposomes inhibited breast cancer cell proliferation when evaluated with 4T1 and MDA-MB231-sensitive and resistant cells. Conclusion: SFP has bioactive compounds based on toxicity effect and can be formulated into liposome as a promising nanonutraceutical formulation.
Keywords: Liposome, Powder, Resistant cell, Snakehead fish, Toxicity effect, Zebrafish
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Submitted: 19 Jan 2019
Revision: 17 Apr 2019
Accepted: 17 Apr 2019
ePublished: 30 Jun 2019
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