Pharm Sci. 2020;26(Suppl 1): S12-S23.
doi: 10.34172/PS.2020.50

Scopus ID: 85097264531
  Abstract View: 383
  PDF Download: 266



COVID-19: Clinical Characteristics and Molecular Levels of Candidate Compounds of Prospective Herbal and Modern Drugs in Indonesia

Robert Tungadi 1* ORCID logo, Teti Sutriyati Tuloli 1, Widysusanti Abdulkadir 1, Nurain Thomas 1, Madania Madania 1, Ani Mustapa Hasan 2, Zulfiayu Sapiun 3

1 Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Sport and Health, State University of Gorontalo, Gorontalo, Indonesia.
2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, State University of Gorontalo, Gorontalo, Indonesia
3 Department of Pharmacy, Health Polytechnic of Gorontalo, Gorontalo, Indonesia.


A recent outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease also called Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China, has rapidly spread to other countries of the world. The medical and scientific communities are working tirelessly to produce a vaccine due to the lethal nature of this virus. COVID-19 is a novel virus that requires immediate emergency therapy, thereby leading to massive fear of infection, social problems in the community, and an increase in the number of infected people. Therefore, scientists and researchers need to determine the epidemiological cases of the virus, such as its mode of transmission, effective preventive measures, and the nature of the life cycle. In addition, there need to be current literature advances
in diagnostic development such as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), computed tomography san (CT-Scan), ELISA as well as clinical researches on modern and herbal drugs for the treatment of infected patients. This treatment technique is classified from antiviral drugs such as entry, replication, nucleosides, nucleotides, and protease inhibitors, along with
the use of heterocyclic drugs, monoclonal antibodies therapy, vaccine development and herbal formulations that have been pre-clinically tested in vitro and molecular docking. Chemical drug molecules with prospective applications in the treatment of COVID-19 have been included in this review.
Keywords: COVID-19, Antiviral, Infection, Herbal, Modern drugs, Pandemic
First Name
Last Name
Email Address
Security code

Abstract View: 324

Your browser does not support the canvas element.

PDF Download: 266

Your browser does not support the canvas element.

Submitted: 31 Mar 2020
Accepted: 16 Jun 2020
ePublished: 30 Nov 2020
EndNote EndNote

(Enw Format - Win & Mac)

BibTeX BibTeX

(Bib Format - Win & Mac)

Bookends Bookends

(Ris Format - Mac only)

EasyBib EasyBib

(Ris Format - Win & Mac)

Medlars Medlars

(Txt Format - Win & Mac)

Mendeley Web Mendeley Web
Mendeley Mendeley

(Ris Format - Win & Mac)

Papers Papers

(Ris Format - Win & Mac)

ProCite ProCite

(Ris Format - Win & Mac)

Reference Manager Reference Manager

(Ris Format - Win only)

Refworks Refworks

(Refworks Format - Win & Mac)

Zotero Zotero

(Ris Format - Firefox Plugin)