Background: Dementia is a disease in which memory, thinking, and cognitive skills are impaired, with Alzheimer’s being the most common type of dementia. Brassica nigra is useful for eliminating memory loss in traditional Persian medicine. This study aims to examine the effect of B. nigra fixed oil (BNO) on the changes in memory caused by β-amyloid.
Methods: This research was conducted on 42 Wistar rats divided into 7 groups (n=6) including 1) control (received vehicle), 2) the group receiving BNO (925 and 462.5 mg/kg), 4) sham group 5) Alzheimer group (receiving 50 ng/µl/side β-amyloid in CA1 area of hippocampus) and 2 groups receiving β-amyloid along with two different doses of BNO. The daily gavage of BNO was done 2 to 21 days post amyloid injection. The spatial memory was evaluated in Morris water maze from day 21 to 26.
Results: The results of this study revealed that the gavage of BNO (925 mg/kg) to rats receiving β-amyloid, as compared to those receiving β-amyloid alone, significantly decreased the traveled distance and the required time for finding hidden platform on the training days and increased the time of presence in the target quadrant on the test days. The analysis of BNO with GC-MS revealed that Erucic acid (24.79%) and 11-Eicosenoic acid (17.23%) had the highest content in the BNO.
Conclusion: Regarding the presence of unsaturated fatty acids, it is likely that the consumption of BNO can play an important role in the prevention of memory degradation which warrants further clinical studies.