Pharm Sci. 2020;26(4): 370-378.
doi: 10.34172/PS.2020.51
  Abstract View: 209
  PDF Download: 141

Research Article

Euphorbia prostata Exerts Potent Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Arthritic Activity in Downregulating the Increased Expression of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines

Dewi Melani Hariyadi 1* ORCID logo, Vikram Kumar Sahu 2

1 Pharmaceutics Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, 60115.
2 Pharmaceutics Department, Maharana Pratap College of Pharmacy, Kanpur, India 209217.


Background: Euphorbia prostrata constitutes a herbal medication widely used to cure numerous inflammatory diseases occurring either alone or in conjunction with other herbal formulations. The research conducted was devised with the aim of determining the effect of Euphorbia prostrata hydroalcoholic leaf extract on paw swelling, joint destruction, and the formation of inflammation-producing cytokines in animal models of rheumatoid arthritis.
Methods: Hydroalcoholic Euphorbia prostrata extract and a reference drug (indomethacin 3mg/kg), were both administered orally on a daily basis at varying doses; low (50 mg/kg), medium (100 mg/kg), and high (200 mg/kg) for a period of 21 days. Other parameters affecting the functional components of bone include joint diameter measurements and histopathological investigations. Immunohistochemical analysis of Interleukin (IL-1, IL-6) and Nuclear Factor(NF-κB)in ankle joint tissue was performed.
Results: The research findings indicated that a significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent reduction in inflammation results from the administering of Euphorbia prostrata at varying doses. A 200mg/kg dose of Euphorbia prostrata with a significance of p<0.001 produced a marked reduction in both inflammation and joint dysfunction. It was concluded, therefore, that such a dose attenuates paw oedema and inflammation, while also reversing bone damage through the inhibition of activated pro-inflammatory mediators and, specifically, NF-κB-mediated production of cytokines.
Conclusion: The research presented here concludes that Euphorbia prostrata hydroalcoholic extract can be potentially employed in the treatment and management of rheumatoid arthritis since it reduces symptoms of inflammation, inhibits macrophage activity and modulates IL-1, IL-6 and NF-κB.
Keywords: Cytokines, Euphorbia prostata, Inflammation, Experimental arthritis, NF-κB pathway
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Abstract View: 209

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Submitted: 29 Aug 2019
Revision: 19 Jun 2020
Accepted: 19 Jun 2020
ePublished: 25 Dec 2020
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